Jumat, 04 Oktober 2013

HYBRIDIZATION

DEFINITION :
The crossing of dissimilar individuals to produce best of both organisms. One advantage of hybridization is that it can combine disease resistance of one organism with the production capacity of another or the act can be said process of mating organisms of different varieties or speciesto create a hybrid.
Something having two kinds of components that produce the same or similar resultsin biology and specifically, genetics, the term hybrid has several meanings, all referring to the offspring of sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is a process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms, it occurs both in eukaryotes and in prokaryotes.
1.      MULE
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two F1 hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny (the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey). The size of a mule and work to which it is put depends largely on the breeding of the mule's dam. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight, or even, when produced from draught horse mares, of moderately heavy weight.
It has been claimed that mules are "more patient, sure-footed, hardy and long-lived than horses, and they are considered less obstinate, faster, and more intelligent than donkeys
2. BEEFALO
Beefalo are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle, Bos taurus, and the American bison,Bison bison (generally called buffalo in the US). The breed was created to combine the characteristics of both animals for beef production.
Beefalo are primarily cattle in genetics and appearance, with the breed association defining a full beefalo as one with 38 (37.5%) bison genetics, while animals with higher percentages of bison genetics are called "bison hybrids".
3.LIGER
The liger is a hybrid cross between a male lion (Panthera leo) and a tigress (Panthera tigris). Thus, it has parents with the same genus but of different species. It is distinct from the similar hybrid tigon. It is the largest of all known extant felines.
Ligers enjoy swimming, which is a characteristic of tigers, and are very sociable like lions. Ligers exist only in captivity because the habitats of the parental species do not overlap in the wild. Historically, when the Asiatic Lion was prolific, the territories of lions and tigers did overlap and there are legends of ligers existing in the wild. Notably, ligers typically grow larger than either parent species, unlike tigons which tend to be about as large as a female tiger
4. TRITICALE
Triticale  is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. The grain was originally bred in Scotland and Sweden. Commercially available triticale is almost always a second generation hybrid,, a cross between two kinds of primary (first cross) triticales. As a rule, triticale combines the yield potential and grain quality of wheat with the disease and environmental tolerance (including soil conditions) of rye.
5. HICAN
A hican is a tree resulting from a cross between a pecan and some other type of hickory (members of the genus Carya) - or the nutfrom such a hybrid tree.
Such crosses often occur naturally. While most such hybrids produce unfilled nuts or have other serious flaws, some have desirable qualities from both species and are propagated commercially for nut production. Their properties vary greatly with the particular ancestral species of hickory. Some produce very desirable nuts with a flavor said to be similar to the better types of hickory nuts (not all hickories produce palatable nuts) but far easier to shell.

6. BROCCOFLOWER 
Broccoflowerrefers to either of two edible plants of the species Brassica oleracea with light green heads. The edible portion is the immature flower head (inflorescence) of the plant.
There are two forms of Brassica oleracea that may be referred to as broccoflower, both of which are considered cultivars of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) because they have inflorescence meristems rather than flower buds when harvested.One is shaped like regular cauliflower, the other has a spiky appearance. They share a curd color that is a similar hue to that of broccoli




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