Jumat, 03 Mei 2013



a.        All applicants must take an interview
b.       All applicants have to take an interview
Must  dan have to keduanya menyatakan suatu keharusan. Perbedaan pengertian antara’must  dan have to’ tidak terlalu jauh, namun ada sedikit perbedaan.
Pilihlah  must bilamana anda ingin menyatakan bahwa kewajiban itu berasaldari anda.
Pilihlah ‘have to’ untuk menyatakan bahwa kewajiban itu berasal dari orang lain.
Dalam (a) dan (b): menyatakan, semua pelamar harus mengikuti wawancara. Tidak ada pilihan lain dan wawancara itu memang diperlukan.
c.        I’m looking for Sue. I have to talk to her about our lunch date tomorrow. I can’t meet her for lunch because I have to go to a business meeting at 1:00.
d.       Where’s Sue ? I must talk to her right away. I have an urgent message for her.
Dalam ungkapan keharusan dalam sehari-hari, have to lebih umum digunakan daripada must. Must biasanya lebih kuat daripada have to dan must dapat menunjukkan adanya suatu penekanan pada kepentingan, seperti “This is very important !”
e.        I have to (“hafta”) be home by eight.
f.         He has to (“hasta”) go to a meeting tonight
hafta’ dan ‘hasta’ sering dijumpai dalam percakapan American style.
g.        I have got to go now. I have a class in ten minutes
h.       I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutes
Have got to menyatakan tentang keharusan (g) dan (h) mempunyai pengertian yang sama. Have got to sifatnya informal dan umumnya digunakan dalam percakapan. Sedangkan have to digunakan baik dalam formal maupun informal.
i.         I have got to go (I’ve gotta go/I gotta go’) now
got to’ seringkali diucapkan “gotta”. Bahkan kadang-kadang have dibuang menjadi “I gotta
j.         I have to/have got to/must study English tonight

Pengertiannya sama saja
Have to = bentuk lampaunya adalah ‘had to’
k.       Past : I had to study last night
Must = tidak dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kewajiban pada waktu lampau, jadi untuk menyatakan suatu keharusan pada waktu lampau, gunakan saja had to.

Must juga dapat digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa si pembicara menduga sesuatu yang dianggap yakin benar dengan didasarkan pada kenyataan/fakta yang ada, hal ini disebut pula logical conclusion (kesimpulan yang masuk akal), contoh :
a.        The light  in Alice’s bedroom is off. She  must be asleep
b.       The grass is wet. It must be raining
c.        His face is pale. He must be sick
d.       His father wears a military uniform. He must be a soldier
a.       kita berkesimpulan; Alice pasti telah tidur karena lampu kamar tidurnya telah mati,
b.       kita berkesimpulan; pasti telah hujan, karena rumput pada basah,
c.        kita berkesimpulan; dia pasti sakit karena wajahnya pucat,
d.       kita berkesimpulan; dia pasti seorang tentara karena memakai seragam militer.
Subject + must + be + noun/adjective/verb-ing

Present/Future Time
Subject +      Have to        + Verb 1 + object
                      Have got to       

Past Time
Subject + had to + verb 1 + object


Must  dan have to digunakan untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang ‘tidak perlu’ dan ‘larangan’.
a.        Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’t have to go to school.
b.       I can hear you. You don’t have to shout.*
*‘tidak perlu’ bisa pula dinyatakan dengan ‘need not + verb 1You need not (needn’t) shout.
Bilamana digunakan dalam bentuk negative, must  dan have to mempunyai arti yang berbeda.
do not have to = tidak perlu
c.        You must not smoke in the classroom, the teacher will be angry with you.
d.       You must not tell anyone my secret. Do you promise ?
must not = larangan/jangan melakukan sesuatu. Dalam kalimat (c) dan (d) mengandung pengertian ‘larangan’.

A.       Use must not or do not have to in the following sentences

1.       I’ve  already finished all my work, so I don’t have to study tonight. I think I’ll read for a while
2.       I must not forget to take my key with me
3.       You _____________ introduce me to Dr. Gray. We’ve already met.
4.       A person ________________ become rich and famous in order to live a successful life
5.       In order to be a good salesclerk, you ________________ be rude to a customer
6.       I _____________ go to the doctor. I’m feeling much better
7.       A person ________________ get married in order to lead a happy and fulfilling life
8.       Johnny! You ________________ play with sharp knives
9.       We _________________ go to the concert if you don’t want to, but it might be good
10.    An entering freshman ____________ declare a major immediately. The students may wait a few semester before deciding upon a major
11.    Bats ______________ see in order to avoid obstacle. They can navigate in complete darkness
12.    This is an opportunity that comes once in a lifetime. We _______________ let it pass.
13.    If you encounter a growling dog, you ______________ show any signs of fear. If a dog senses fear, it is more likely to bite a person
14.    Tigers are magnificent animals. We ________________ allow them to become extinct.
15.    The class trip to the art museum is optional. You ________________ go, but you might enjoy it


B.       Complete these sentences with mustn’t or don’t/doesn’t have to

Example : I don’t want anyone to know. You  mustn’t   tell anyone what I said
                   I don’t have to  wear a suit to work but I usually do

1.       I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I ___________________________ work
2.       Whatever you do, you ______________________ touch that switch. It’s very dangerous
3.       You ___________________ forget what I told you. It’s very important
4.       She _____________________ get up so early. She gets up early because she prefers to
5.       We ______________________ leave yet. We’ve got plenty of time
6.       The students ___________________ draw the grafitti on the wall
7.       She __________________ join the remedial test because her grade is very good
8.       “You ___________________ smoke anymore !” the doctor said to my father
9.       Children _____________________ work hard because they are still weak
10.    The pedestrians ______________________ cross the street when the light is in green



a.         You should study harder
      You ought to study harder

b.        Drivers should obey the speed limit
      Drivers ought to obey the speed limit

Contoh lain:
You should not leave your keys in the car
Should dan ought to mempunyai pengertian yang sama: keduanya menyatakan suatu saran seperti ungkapan This is a good idea atau sebuah saran sebagai bentuk tanggungjawab atau kewajiban, seperti dalam ungkapan This is a very important thing to do.
Dalam kalimat (a) mempunyai pengertian ‘This is a good idea. This is my advice. Dalam kalimat (b) ‘This is an important resposibility/duty’.
c.         The gas tank is almost empty. We had better stop at the next gas station
Dalam pengertian, had better dekat dengan should/ought to, tetapi had better itu lebih kuat. Seringkali had better menekankan pada peringatan atau suatu resiko jelek yang bakal terjadi bilamana tidak menuruti saran. Kalimat (c) jika tidak berhenti di pom bensin, maka mobil akan kehabisan bahan bakar.
Catatan : had better memiliki pengertian present atau future.  Dan lebih sering digunakan dalam bentuk percakapan.
d.        You had better take a test soon, or you will not have a mark
Subject + should + (not) + verb 1 + object
Subject + ought (not) to + verb 1 + object
Subject + had better (not) + verb 1 + object

A.        Give advice in the following situations by using should, ought to, or had better

Example                   : I have a test tomorrow
Response                : You should (ought to, had better) study tonight

1.       I’m writing a composition, and there is a word I don’t know how to spell it

2.       I don’t feel good. I think I’m catching a cold

3.       I can’t see the words well when I sit in the back row

4.       I’m homesick

5.       I have a problem with my student visa

6.       My roommate snores and I can’t get to sleep

7.       I need to improve my English

8.       I can’t stop yawning

9.       My library book is due today

10.    There’s no food in my house, and some guests are coming to dinner tonight

11.    I have only twenty-five cents in my pocket, but I need some  money to go out tonight

12.    My apartment is a mess, and my mother is coming to visit me tomorrow

13.    I’m about to leave on a trip, but the gas gauge in my car is on empty

14.    I have a toothache

15.    I have forgotten to lock the door


1.  Juan___________ in the library this morning.
A.  is study
B.  studying
C.  is studying
D.  are studying
2. Alicia, __________ the windows please. It's too hot in here.
A.  opens
B.  open
C.  opened
D.  will opened
3.  The movie was __________ the book.
A.  as
B.  as good
C.  good as
D.  as good as

4.  Eli's hobbies include jogging, swimming, and _____
A.  to climb mountains
B.  climb mountains
C.  to climb
D.  climbing mountains

5.  Mr. Hawkins requests that someone _________ the data by fax immediately.
A.  sent
B.  sends
C.  send
D.  to send

6.  Who is ____________ , Marina or Sachiko?
A.  tallest
B.  tall
C.  taller
D.  the tallest

7.  The concert will begin ________ fifteen minutes.
A.  in
B.  on
C.  with
D.  about

8.  I have only a _____ Christmas cards left to write.
A.  few
B.  fewer
C.  less
D.  little

9.  Each of the Olympic athletes _____ for months,
even years.

A.  have been training
B.  were training
C.  has been training
D.  been training

10. Maria __________ never late for work.
A.  am
B.  are
C.  were
D.  is

11. The company will upgrade ___ computer information systems next month.
A.  there
B.  their
C.  it's
D.  its
12. Cheryl likes apples,__ she does not like oranges.
A.  so
B.  for
C.  but
D.  or
13. You were ___ the New York office before 2 p.m.
A.  suppose call
B.  supposed to call
C.  supposed calling
D.  supposed call
14. When I graduate from college next June, I ____
a student here for five years.

A.  will have been
B.  have been
C.  has been
D.  will have
15. Ms. Guth ______ rather not invest that money in the stock market.
A.  has to
B.  could
C.  would
D.  must


1.  The majority to the news is about violence or scandal.
A.  The
B.  to
C.  news
D.  violence
2.  Takeshi swimmed one hundred laps in the pool yesterday.
A.  swimmed
B.  hundred
C.  in
D.  yesterday

3.  When our vacation, we plan to spend three days
scuba diving.

A.  When
B.  plan
C.  days
D.  diving
4.  Mr. Feinauer does not take critical of his work very well.
A.  does
B.  critical
C.  his
D.  well
5.  Yuette and Rinaldo send e-mail messages to other often.
A.  and
B.  send
C.  other
D.  often

6.  Mr. Olsen is telephoning a American Red Cross for help.
A.  is
B.  a
C.  Red
D.  for
7.  I had a enjoyable time at the party last night.
A.  a
B.  time
C.  at
D.  last
8.  The doctor him visited the patient's parents.
A.  The
B.  him
C.  visited
D.  patient's
9.  Petra intends to starting her own software business
in a few years.

A.  intends
B.  starting
C.  software
D.  few
10. Each day after school, Jerome run five miles.
A.  Each
B.  after
C.  run
D.  miles
11. He goes never to the company softball games.
A.  never
B.  the
C.  softball
D.  games
12. Do you know the student who books were stolen?
A.  Do
B.  know
C.  who
D.  were
13. Jean-Pierre will spend his vacation either in Singapore
nor the Bahamas.

A.  will
B.  his
C.  nor
D.  Bahamas

14. I told the salesman that I was not interesting in buying the latest model.

A.  told
B.  that
C.  interesting
D.  buying

15. Frederick used work for a multinational corporation
when he lived in Malaysia.

A.  used work
B.  multinational
C.  when
D.  lived in


1.  The rate of ___________ has been fluctuating wildly
this week.

A.  money
B.  bills
C.  coins
D.  exchange
2.  The bus ___________ arrives late during bad weather.
A.  every week
B.  later
C.  yesterday
D.  always
3.  Do you ____________ where the nearest grocery store is?
A.  know
B.  no
C.  now
D.  not
4.  Jerry Seinfeld, the popular American comedian, has his audiences ___________.
A.  putting too many irons in the fire
B.  keeping their noses out of someone's business
C.  rolling in the aisles
D.  going to bat for someone
5.  The chairperson will ____________ members to the subcommittee.
A.  appoint
B.  disappoint
C.  appointment
D.  disappointed
6.  The critics had to admit that the ballet ______________ was superb.
A.  procrastinate
B.  performance
C.  pathology
D.  psychosomatic
7. Peter says he can't ___________ our invitation
to dinner tonight.

A.  angel
B.  across
C.  accept
D.  almost
8.  We were __________ friends in that strange but magical country.
A.  upon
B.  among
C.  toward
D.  in addition to
9.  The hurricane caused ____________ damage to the city.
A.  extend
B.  extended
C.  extensive
D.  extension
10.  Many cultures have special ceremonies to celebrate a person's _________ of passage into adulthood.
A.  right                                  C.  writ
B.  rite                                    D.  write

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