Jumat, 03 Mei 2013

REPORTED SPEECH


 A.     REPORTED SPEECH IN THE STATEMENT FORMS

 
Beberapa perubahan Tenses dalam kalimat Reported Speech Bentuk STATEMENTS
DIRECT SPEECH                                                    INDIRECT SPEECH
1. Simple Present Tense
1. Simple Past Tense
Subject + Verb 1 + Object     
Subject + Verb 2 + Object
Subject + Do/does + Not + Verb 1 + Object        
Subject + Did + Not + Verb 1 + Object

2. Present Continuous Tense
2. Past Continuous Tense
Subject + Be 1 + Verb-ing + Object              

Subject + Be 2 + Verb-ing + Object

3. Present Perfect Tense
3. Past Perfect Tense
Subject + Have/Has + Verb 3 + Object         

Subject + Had + Verb 3 + Object
4. Simple Past Tense
Subject + Verb 2 + Object                             


5. Subject + Modals Aux. 1 + Verb 1 + Object 

5. Subject + Modals Aux. 2 + Verb 1 + Object


PERUBAHAN WAKTU, KETERANGAN TEMPAT & PELENGKAP LAINNYA

Now
Then
Subject ‘I’ bisa berubah menjadi ‘he’ atau ‘she’ tergantung Subject pada kalimat Direct Speech.
Subject ‘My…….’ bisa berubah menjadi ‘his’ atau ‘her’ tergantung Subject pada kalimat Direct Speech.
Object ‘you’ pada kalimat Direct Speech berubah menjadi ‘me’ pada kalimat Indirect Speech
Today
That day
Yesterday
The day before/the previous day
Tomorrow
The day after/the following day
Last week(s)
The week(s) before / the previous week(s)
Week(s) ago
The week(s) before / the previous week(s)
Next week(s)
The week(s) after / the following week(s)
Everyday
Every now and then
Here
There
This
That
These
those


 
Perubahan Tenses dalam bentuk STATEMENTS
DIRECT SPEECH                                               INDIRECT SPEECH
1. Simple Present Tense
1. Simple Past Tense
Subject + Verb 1 + Object     
Subject + Verb 2 + Object


 1.     Bob says, “I call Anna”

 

Bob said that      he called  Anna          


Perubahan Tenses dalam bentuk STATEMENTS
DIRECT SPEECH                                                    INDIRECT SPEECH
2. Present Continuous Tense
2. Past Continuous Tense
Subject + Be 1 + Verb-ing + Object              

Subject + Be 2 + Verb-ing + Object


        Bob says, “They are climbing the mountain”

Bob said that they   were    climbing the mountain  

      Bob says, “Alice is talking to Anna in the cafeteria”


Bob said that Alice was talking to Anna in the cafeteria

Perubahan Tenses dalam bentuk STATEMENTS
DIRECT SPEECH                                                                INDIRECT SPEECH
5. Subject + Modals Aux. 1 + Verb 1 + Object 

5. Subject + Modals Aux. 2 + Verb 1 + Object


1.     Bob says, “ I will  help you

Bob said that   he   would  help me

 2.     Bob says, “They will go camping tomorrow

        Bob said that they would go camping the day after
        
 3.     Bob says, “My father   can   play piano”

        Bob said that      his father could   play piano

 4.     Bob says, “Andy must come to the teacher’s house next week

Bob said that Andy had to come to the teacher’s house the following week


3. Present Perfect Tense
3. Past Perfect Tense
Subject + Have/Has + Verb 3 + Object         

Subject + Had + Verb 3 + Object
4. Simple Past Tense
Subject + Verb 2 + Object                             





1.     I have taken the test”

Bob said that he had taken the test

2.     “The boy     broke      the window last night”

Bob said that the boy                        had broken       the window the night before

3.     My father can play piano”

Bob said that his   father  could play piano

4.     “Andy    must    come to the teacher’s house next week

Bob said that Andy                had to                                     come to the teacher’s house       the following week

5.     “   I     called     Anna    yesterday

Bob said that he    had called              Anna               the day before

B. REPORTED SPEECH IN THE INTERROGATIVE FORMS

 
Beberapa perubahan Tenses dalam kalimat Reported Speech Dalam Bentuk INTERROGATIVE
DIRECT SPEECH                                                       INDIRECT SPEECH
1. Simple Present Tense
1. Simple Past Tense
Do/Does + Subject + Verb 1 + Object ?

Subject + Verb 2 + Object


2. Present Continuous Tense
2. Past Continuous Tense
Be 1 + Subject + + Verb-ing + Object?
  Be 1 berpindah  posisinya  jadi setelah Subject pada Indirect Speech

Subject + Be 2 + Verb-ing + Object


3. Present Perfect Tense
3. Past Perfect Tense
Have/Has + Subject + + Verb 3 + Object?

Subject + Had + Verb 3 + Object

4. Simple Past Tense
Did + Subject + Verb 1 + Object?



5. Modals Aux. 1 + Subject + + Verb 1 + Object?

5. Subject + Modals Aux. 2 + Verb 1 + Object

Contoh :

1.     Do they study English?

 

      John asked me if/whether they studied English         ‘do’ dalam kalimat tanya tidak usah dibawa lagi

2.    
Are
you telling something to Kevin ?

      John asked me if/whether I was telling something to Kevin

3.    
Have
they collected the paper ?

      John asked me if/whether they had      collected the paper

4.    
Did
Linda call you last night?
                                                                                                                           ‘did’ dalam kalimat tanya tidak usah dibawa lagi
      John asked me if/whether Linda had called me the night before       

5.    
Will
they go to Bali next week?

      John asked me if/whether they would go to Bali the following week



C. REPORTED SPEECH IN THE INTERROGATIVE USING OF WH/HOW QUESTIONS FORMS

DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple Present Tense
Simple Past Tense
Wh/How + Do/Does + Subject + Verb 1 + Object ?
John asked me + wh/how + Subject + Verb 2 + Object


Simple Past Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Wh/How + Did + Subject + Verb 1 + Object ?
John asked me + wh/how + Subject + Had + Verb 3 + Object


Present Continuous Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Wh/How + Be 1 + Subject + Verb-ing + Object ?

John asked me + wh/how + Subject + Be 2 + Verb-ing + Object


Present Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Wh/How + have/has + Subject + Verb-3 + Object ?
John asked me + wh/how + Subject + had + Verb 3 + Object


Modal Auxiliaries 1
Modal Auxiliaries 2
Wh/How + Modals 1 + Subject + Verb 1 + Object ?
John asked me + wh/how + Subject + Modals 2 + Verb 1 + Object


Contoh :

1.    
What do         you bring to school?
                                                                                                                     ‘do ’ menjadi hilang/tidak dibawa kagi
John asked me what I brought to school

2.     Where did you buy this bag?
                                                                                                                     ‘did ’ menjadi hilang/tidak dibawa kagi
John asked me where I had bought that bag

3.     Why is she leaving her house soon?

John asked me why she was leaving his house soon

4.     How can you operate this computer?

John asked me how I could              operate that computer

1.     What have you seen in the classroom?

John asked me what I had seen in the house




Exercises:

a.     Change the following statements from Direct  to Indirect Speech

Example :         = Carolyn said, “I will be here at noon”
                         = Carolyn said that she would be there at noon

1.     David said, “The plane will probably get in late”

= ______________________________________________________________________        
2.     The boss said, “I have to finish this report by tomorrow night”

= _____________________________________________________________________         

3.     The doctor said, “She’ll get well quickly”

= _____________________________________________________________________          
                        
4.     Richard said, “I saw the movie last week”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

5.     Jane said, “I’ve read this book”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

6.     Suzanne said, “I can’t go out tonight”

= __________________suzzane said that she could not go out tonight
7.     I said to her, ”Her answer is wrong”

I said to her that her answer was wrong

8.     Ted said, “I send a letter to my father”

= ted said that he sent a letter to his father

9.     Rita said, “He broke the window”

= Rita said that he had broken the window               

10.   Mr. Hans said to me, “Your report was not completed”

= mr hans said to me that my report had not been completed

11.   My mother said, “I am cooking soup”

= my mother said that she was cooking soup          

12.   I said to the waitress, “The bill is wrong”

= I said to the waitress that the bill was wrong

13.   My friend said, “I have written this letter”

= my friend said that she had written that letter        

14.   Catherine said, “I know these girls quite well”

= Catherine said that she knew

15.   Mr. Johnson said, “My secretary didn’t finish the work”

= _____________________________________________________________________


b.     Change the following Interrogative sentences from Direct  to Indirect Speech

Example :         = He asked me, “How long have you worked here?”
                         = He asked me how long I had worked there

                         = He asked me, “Will you stay here?”
                         = He asked me if I would stay there

1.     Mr. Carter asked me, “Where are you going?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

2.     John asked her, “Can you play a piano?”
= _____________________________________________________________________          

1.     Ross asked me, “Did you mail this letter for me?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

2.     I asked the shopkeeper, “What is the price of this tie?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

3.     She asked me, “When will you get back from your trip?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

4.     He asked her, “What time is it?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

5.     He asked me, “How long have you studied English?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

6.     They asked her. “Do you know Mr. Albert?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

7.     Mr. Farrell asked me, “How soon can you pay back the money?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

8.     My mother asked him, “Did you sleep here last night?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

9.     Mr. Johnson asked Mary, “Have you finished typing the document?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

10.   She asked me, “When did you call me?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

11.   The woman asked me, “Where can I find the director’s office?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

12.   The agent asked me, “When do you plan to leave for South America?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          

13.   The teacher asked me. “have you completed the test ?”

= _____________________________________________________________________          


a.             Change the following sentence from Direct to Indirect Speech

Example :         = He said to me, “Come back home soon”
                         = He told me to come back home soon

                         = He said to me, “Don’t go to bed late”
                         = He told me not to go to bed late

1.     My husband said to me, “Wait for me outside”

= ______________________________________________________________________

2.     The teacher said to us, “Don’t make so much noise”

= ______________________________________________________________________

3.     He said to me, “Try to come on time”

= ______________________________________________________________________

4.     He begged us, “Please send me money at once”

= ______________________________________________________________________

5.     He asked us, “Please sit down for a few minutes”

= ______________________________________________________________________

6.     She said to me, ”Don’t forget what I have told you”

= ______________________________________________________________________

7.     He said to me angrily, “Don’t make the same mistake anymore”

= ______________________________________________________________________

8.     The doctor said, “Come back again tomorrow”

= ______________________________________________________________________

9.     I said to him, “Don’t call me again at this late hour”

= ______________________________________________________________________

10.   He begged me, “Please don’t mention this to Margaret”

= ______________________________________________________________________

11.   I said to the boy, “Put the package inside the door”

= ______________________________________________________________________

12.   The teacher said to us, “Type your compositions”

= ______________________________________________________________________

13.   I said to him, “Don’t ever try this t trick again”

= ______________________________________________________________________

14.   Mother said to me, “Look out the window, but don’t open it”

= ______________________________________________________________________

15.   The teacher said to us, “Pay more attention to what I say”

= ______________________________________________________________________







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