Jumat, 03 Mei 2013



a.        All applicants must take an interview
b.       All applicants have to take an interview
Must  dan have to keduanya menyatakan suatu keharusan. Perbedaan pengertian antara’must  dan have to’ tidak terlalu jauh, namun ada sedikit perbedaan.
Pilihlah  must bilamana anda ingin menyatakan bahwa kewajiban itu berasaldari anda.
Pilihlah ‘have to’ untuk menyatakan bahwa kewajiban itu berasal dari orang lain.
Dalam (a) dan (b): menyatakan, semua pelamar harus mengikuti wawancara. Tidak ada pilihan lain dan wawancara itu memang diperlukan.
c.        I’m looking for Sue. I have to talk to her about our lunch date tomorrow. I can’t meet her for lunch because I have to go to a business meeting at 1:00.
d.       Where’s Sue ? I must talk to her right away. I have an urgent message for her.
Dalam ungkapan keharusan dalam sehari-hari, have to lebih umum digunakan daripada must. Must biasanya lebih kuat daripada have to dan must dapat menunjukkan adanya suatu penekanan pada kepentingan, seperti “This is very important !”
e.        I have to (“hafta”) be home by eight.
f.         He has to (“hasta”) go to a meeting tonight
hafta’ dan ‘hasta’ sering dijumpai dalam percakapan American style.
g.        I have got to go now. I have a class in ten minutes
h.       I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutes
Have got to menyatakan tentang keharusan (g) dan (h) mempunyai pengertian yang sama. Have got to sifatnya informal dan umumnya digunakan dalam percakapan. Sedangkan have to digunakan baik dalam formal maupun informal.
i.         I have got to go (I’ve gotta go/I gotta go’) now
got to’ seringkali diucapkan “gotta”. Bahkan kadang-kadang have dibuang menjadi “I gotta
j.         I have to/have got to/must study English tonight

Pengertiannya sama saja
Have to = bentuk lampaunya adalah ‘had to’
k.       Past : I had to study last night
Must = tidak dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kewajiban pada waktu lampau, jadi untuk menyatakan suatu keharusan pada waktu lampau, gunakan saja had to.

Must juga dapat digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa si pembicara menduga sesuatu yang dianggap yakin benar dengan didasarkan pada kenyataan/fakta yang ada, hal ini disebut pula logical conclusion (kesimpulan yang masuk akal), contoh :
a.        The light  in Alice’s bedroom is off. She  must be asleep
b.       The grass is wet. It must be raining
c.        His face is pale. He must be sick
d.       His father wears a military uniform. He must be a soldier
a.       kita berkesimpulan; Alice pasti telah tidur karena lampu kamar tidurnya telah mati,
b.       kita berkesimpulan; pasti telah hujan, karena rumput pada basah,
c.        kita berkesimpulan; dia pasti sakit karena wajahnya pucat,
d.       kita berkesimpulan; dia pasti seorang tentara karena memakai seragam militer.
Subject + must + be + noun/adjective/verb-ing

Present/Future Time
Subject +      Have to        + Verb 1 + object
                      Have got to       

Past Time
Subject + had to + verb 1 + object


Must  dan have to digunakan untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang ‘tidak perlu’ dan ‘larangan’.
a.        Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’t have to go to school.
b.       I can hear you. You don’t have to shout.*
*‘tidak perlu’ bisa pula dinyatakan dengan ‘need not + verb 1You need not (needn’t) shout.
Bilamana digunakan dalam bentuk negative, must  dan have to mempunyai arti yang berbeda.
do not have to = tidak perlu
c.        You must not smoke in the classroom, the teacher will be angry with you.
d.       You must not tell anyone my secret. Do you promise ?
must not = larangan/jangan melakukan sesuatu. Dalam kalimat (c) dan (d) mengandung pengertian ‘larangan’.

A.       Use must not or do not have to in the following sentences

1.       I’ve  already finished all my work, so I don’t have to study tonight. I think I’ll read for a while
2.       I must not forget to take my key with me
3.       You _____________ introduce me to Dr. Gray. We’ve already met.
4.       A person ________________ become rich and famous in order to live a successful life
5.       In order to be a good salesclerk, you ________________ be rude to a customer
6.       I _____________ go to the doctor. I’m feeling much better
7.       A person ________________ get married in order to lead a happy and fulfilling life
8.       Johnny! You ________________ play with sharp knives
9.       We _________________ go to the concert if you don’t want to, but it might be good
10.    An entering freshman ____________ declare a major immediately. The students may wait a few semester before deciding upon a major
11.    Bats ______________ see in order to avoid obstacle. They can navigate in complete darkness
12.    This is an opportunity that comes once in a lifetime. We _______________ let it pass.
13.    If you encounter a growling dog, you ______________ show any signs of fear. If a dog senses fear, it is more likely to bite a person
14.    Tigers are magnificent animals. We ________________ allow them to become extinct.
15.    The class trip to the art museum is optional. You ________________ go, but you might enjoy it


B.       Complete these sentences with mustn’t or don’t/doesn’t have to

Example : I don’t want anyone to know. You  mustn’t   tell anyone what I said
                   I don’t have to  wear a suit to work but I usually do

1.       I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I ___________________________ work
2.       Whatever you do, you ______________________ touch that switch. It’s very dangerous
3.       You ___________________ forget what I told you. It’s very important
4.       She _____________________ get up so early. She gets up early because she prefers to
5.       We ______________________ leave yet. We’ve got plenty of time
6.       The students ___________________ draw the grafitti on the wall
7.       She __________________ join the remedial test because her grade is very good
8.       “You ___________________ smoke anymore !” the doctor said to my father
9.       Children _____________________ work hard because they are still weak
10.    The pedestrians ______________________ cross the street when the light is in green

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